The youngest bilingual Canadians: Insights from the 2016 Census about children aged 0-9


This study used the 2016 Canadian census data to examine bilingualism amongst children aged 0–9 years. Across Canada, 18 percent of children used two or more languages at home, which rose to more than 25 percent of children in large cities and in Northern Canada. English and French was the most common language pair in Quebec and Ontario, and a variety of other pairs were spoken in other provinces. The presence of bilingual adults in the home and immigration generation were the strongest predictors of children’s active bilingualism. These findings can inform policies for supporting bilingual children and families.